The trial is set to run this summer in Oldham, Birmingham, Leicester and London and will be funded by grants from the pharmaceutical company, Roche and the biotechnology company, Amgen.
Target groups will be black African Caribbean people, south Asian people, diabetes patients and people with an family history of kidney disease.
Although difficult to detect early as those affected demonstrate no symptoms, the progression of chronic kidney disease can be slowed down with lifestyle changes.
If the scheme proves successful, it could be rolled out nationally. Around 10% of UK adults have some form of kidney damage.
Dr Donal O'Donoghue, the charity's national clinical director for kidney care, said: 'Dialysis currently costs the NHS approximately half a billion pounds. With early detection and prevention targeting high-risk groups, we can identify people with CKD, before they reach a critical stage and help them manage the condition.
'There can be no argument that this is the right thing to do for both the patient and the NHS.'