Your browser is no longer supported

For the best possible experience using our website we recommend you upgrade to a newer version or another browser.

Your browser appears to have cookies disabled. For the best experience of this website, please enable cookies in your browser

We'll assume we have your consent to use cookies, for example so you won't need to log in each time you visit our site.
Learn more

Chloroquine.

  • Comment

VOL: 101, ISSUE: 35, PAGE NO: 31

Generic and proprietary names

 

Generic and proprietary names
- Chloroquine/chloroquine sulphate, Avloclor, Nivaquine.

 

 

Action
- The exact action of chloroquine is unclear, but it is thought to stop malaria parasites replicating within their host red blood cells.

 

 

Classification
- Antimalarial.

 

 

Indications
- Malaria prophylaxis.

 

 

- Rheumatoid arthritis.

 

 

- Lupus erythematosus.

 

 

Cautions
- Pregnancy (in malaria, however, benefit outweighs risk).

 

 

- Renal impairment.

 

 

- Severe gastrointestinal problems.

 

 

- Neurological conditions (avoid use as prophylaxis if there is a history of epilepsy).

 

 

- Myasthenia gravis.

 

 

- Psoriasis can be exacerbated.

 

 

- Glucose-6-dehydrogenase deficiency.

 

 

- Long-term use can result in ophthalmic complications.

 

 

- Avoid using at the same time as hepatotoxic medication.

 

 

Side-effects
- Gastrointestinal disturbances.

 

 

- Headache.

 

 

- Skin reactions such as rashes and pruritis.

 

 

- Very toxic in overdose.

 

 

- Convulsions.

 

 

- Visual disturbances such as blurred vision and photophobia.

 

 

- Keratopathy.

 

 

- Ototoxicity.

 

 

- Depigmentation or loss of hair.

 

 

- Skin and nail discoloration.

 

 

- Discoloration of mucous membrane.

 

 

- Photophobia.

 

 

Rare side-effects
- Hypersensitivity, including urticaria and angioedema.

 

 

- Blood disorders.

 

 

- Mental problems.

 

 

- Suppression of bone marrow.

 

 

- Myopathy.

 

 

- Exfoliative dermatitis.

 

 

- Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

 

 

- Photosensitivity.

 

 

- Hepatic damage.

 

 

Interactions
- Decreased action with magnesium, aluminium compounds and kaolin.

 

 

- Reduced oral clearance and metabolism with cimetidine.

 

 

Administration
- Tablets, liquid or injection.

 

 

Nursing considerations
- Resistance has developed in certain parts of the world.

 

 

- Recommendations for malaria prophylaxis should be based on up-to-date research.

 

 

- Prophylaxis is not 100 per cent effective. It is important to inform travellers about mosquito bites and taking drug regularly.

 

 

- Rotate injection site.

 

 

- Orally, give same time each day to maintain levels.

 

 

- Ophthalmic tests required in long-term treatment.

 

 

- Observe for allergic reactions, such as pruritis, rash, urticaria.

 

 

- Observe for ototoxicity (tinnitus, vertigo, changes in hearing ability).

 

 

- Toxicity is a problem - observe for signs.

 

 

Patient teaching
- On return from malarial region patients should visit doctor if symptoms occur up to one year after return, but especially if within three months, mentioning their exposure to malaria.

 

 

- Sunglasses should be worn to decrease photophobia.

 

 

- Urine may become rust-coloured.

 

 

- Patient should report hearing or visual problems, fever, fatigue, excessive bruising or bleeding.

 

 

Nurses should refer to manufacturer’s summary of product characteristics and to appropriate local guidelines

  • Comment

Related files

Have your say

You must sign in to make a comment

Please remember that the submission of any material is governed by our Terms and Conditions and by submitting material you confirm your agreement to these Terms and Conditions. Links may be included in your comments but HTML is not permitted.