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VOL: 101, ISSUE: 35, PAGE NO: 31

Generic and proprietary names


Generic and proprietary names
- Chloroquine/chloroquine sulphate, Avloclor, Nivaquine.



- The exact action of chloroquine is unclear, but it is thought to stop malaria parasites replicating within their host red blood cells.



- Antimalarial.



- Malaria prophylaxis.



- Rheumatoid arthritis.



- Lupus erythematosus.



- Pregnancy (in malaria, however, benefit outweighs risk).



- Renal impairment.



- Severe gastrointestinal problems.



- Neurological conditions (avoid use as prophylaxis if there is a history of epilepsy).



- Myasthenia gravis.



- Psoriasis can be exacerbated.



- Glucose-6-dehydrogenase deficiency.



- Long-term use can result in ophthalmic complications.



- Avoid using at the same time as hepatotoxic medication.



- Gastrointestinal disturbances.



- Headache.



- Skin reactions such as rashes and pruritis.



- Very toxic in overdose.



- Convulsions.



- Visual disturbances such as blurred vision and photophobia.



- Keratopathy.



- Ototoxicity.



- Depigmentation or loss of hair.



- Skin and nail discoloration.



- Discoloration of mucous membrane.



- Photophobia.



Rare side-effects
- Hypersensitivity, including urticaria and angioedema.



- Blood disorders.



- Mental problems.



- Suppression of bone marrow.



- Myopathy.



- Exfoliative dermatitis.



- Stevens-Johnson syndrome.



- Photosensitivity.



- Hepatic damage.



- Decreased action with magnesium, aluminium compounds and kaolin.



- Reduced oral clearance and metabolism with cimetidine.



- Tablets, liquid or injection.



Nursing considerations
- Resistance has developed in certain parts of the world.



- Recommendations for malaria prophylaxis should be based on up-to-date research.



- Prophylaxis is not 100 per cent effective. It is important to inform travellers about mosquito bites and taking drug regularly.



- Rotate injection site.



- Orally, give same time each day to maintain levels.



- Ophthalmic tests required in long-term treatment.



- Observe for allergic reactions, such as pruritis, rash, urticaria.



- Observe for ototoxicity (tinnitus, vertigo, changes in hearing ability).



- Toxicity is a problem - observe for signs.



Patient teaching
- On return from malarial region patients should visit doctor if symptoms occur up to one year after return, but especially if within three months, mentioning their exposure to malaria.



- Sunglasses should be worn to decrease photophobia.



- Urine may become rust-coloured.



- Patient should report hearing or visual problems, fever, fatigue, excessive bruising or bleeding.



Nurses should refer to manufacturer’s summary of product characteristics and to appropriate local guidelines

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