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Identifying and managing the complications of diabetes.

Diabetes is a common chronic condition that, if not adequately controlled, can lead to acute metabolic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in type 1 diabetes and hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HONK) in type 2 diabetes. The discovery of insulin and its use as a therapeutic agent in the management of type 1 diabetes in the early 1920s led to the apparent miraculous recovery of extremely sick patients with DKA, who were brought back from the brink of death (Bliss, 1982).

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