Your browser is no longer supported

For the best possible experience using our website we recommend you upgrade to a newer version or another browser.

Your browser appears to have cookies disabled. For the best experience of this website, please enable cookies in your browser

We'll assume we have your consent to use cookies, for example so you won't need to log in each time you visit our site.
Learn more


  • Comment

VOL: 100, ISSUE: 45, PAGE NO: 31


- Generic: diazepam.

- Proprietary (NHS): Diazemuls (injection); Stesolid, Diazepam Rectubes (rectal tubes); Valclair (suppositories).

- Proprietary (non-NHS): Tensium, Rimapam (tablets); Dialar (oral sol).


- Functional: anxiolytic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant.

- Chemical: benzodiazepine.

- Legal: controlled drug (section 4), prescription only.


- Depresses subcortical levels of central nervous system, including limbic system, recticular formation.


- Oral: onset 30 mins, peak 1-2 hrs.

- Intramuscular: onset 15-30 mins.

- Intravenous: onset 1-5 mins.

- Metabolised by liver, excreted by kidneys.


- Nurse prescriber: palliative care in chronic severe spasticity.

- Other: anxiety, insomnia, alcohol withdrawal, status epilepticus, febrile convulsions, premed sedation.


- Respiratory depression.

- Acute pulmonary insufficiency.

- Sleep apnoea syndrome.

- Severe hepatic impairment.

- Chronic psychosis.

- Do not use alone with depression or for anxiety with depression.


- History of drug or alcohol abuse.

- Older or debilitated (reduce dose).

- Muscle weakness.

- Marked personality disorder.

- Psychosis.

- Pregnancy/breastfeeding.

- Renal impairment.

- Respiratory disease.


- Drowsiness and lightheadedness.

- Confusion, ataxia.

- Dependence.

- Increased aggression.

- Amnesia.

- Muscle weakness.


- Isoniazid inhibits metabolism.

- Rifampicin increases metabolism.

- Vomeprazole and esomeprazole may inhibit metabolism.

- Ritonavir increases plasma levels - avoid concomitant use.

- Alters plasma levels of phenytoin.

- Raises plasma level of zotepine.

- May antagonise levodopa.


- Oral: tablets, capsules, solutions.

- Intramuscular injection - only if oral or IV route unavailable.

- Slow IV injection.

- IV infusion.

- Rectal (tubes and suppositories) if unable to take orally.


- Assess baseline vital signs.

- Assess blood pressure, pulse and respiration if IV administration.

- Provide frequent sips of water for dry mouth.

- Provide fluids and fibre for constipation.

- Evaluate therapeutic response, mental state and physical dependency after long-term use.


- Do not use for everyday stress.

- Do not use for more than four months unless directed by a clinician.

- Do not take more than the prescribed dose.

- Avoid non-prescribed medications unless approved by a clinician.

- May cause drowsiness - avoid driving or any other activities requiring alertness.

- Avoid other psychotropic medications unless prescribed.

- Avoid alcohol.

- Do not discontinue abruptly after long-term use - withdrawal symptoms may occur.

- Rise slowly as fainting may occur.

- Seek psychiatric help if depressed.

- Store securely.

  • Comment

Related files

Have your say

You must sign in to make a comment

Please remember that the submission of any material is governed by our Terms and Conditions and by submitting material you confirm your agreement to these Terms and Conditions. Links may be included in your comments but HTML is not permitted.