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The principles of neuromuscular electrical stimulation

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used to stimulate nerves and muscles to achieve a therapeutic response. It is used in the management of urinary stress incontinence, unstable (overactive) bladder, urge faecal incontinence and passive faecal incontinence. It is recommended that NMES should be combined with biofeedback and pelvic floor muscle exercise for muscle strengthening, and with bladder drill and medication for detrusor hyperactivity and hypoactivity (Laycock and ...

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