Issue : January 2004
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VOL: 101, ISSUE: 05, PAGE NO: 31Generic/proprietary names
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurological condition in young adults in the UK (Perkin and Wolinsky, 2000). It occurs all around the world, but is more common in countries with temperate climates. The UK, Scandinavia and Iceland have the highest rates of MS in the world.
VOL: 100, ISSUE: 04, PAGE NO: 50 Marion Richardson, BD, CertEd, RGN, RNT, DipN, is senior lecturer and programme leader, emergency nursing, University of Hertfordshire When an injury occurs and the skin is damaged, the process of tissue repair begins immediately, but some wounds can take up to two years or more to heal completely.
VOL: 100, ISSUE: 04, PAGE NO: 66
Medication errors, always a focus for media attention, are of concern to the general public and medical practitioners alike. According to the Department of Health (2000) document An Organisation With a Memory 25 per cent of litigation claims relate to medication errors. This has prompted the government to set a target to reduce such errors by 40 per cent by 2005.
It is thought that electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis may provide us with a better understanding of the dynamics of the human brain (Adeli et al, 2003) and so presumably help us understand more fully conditions such as epilepsy. However, Fowle and Binnie (2000) state that an EEG reading can be abnormal in people who do not have epilepsy and normal in people who do.
Every wound and patient is different so there is no single method for the management of acute wounds. However, there are some guiding principles that can assist in the decision-making process. Most wounds are suitable for primary closure, for example with sutures, while for other wounds closure is either delayed or not attempted (healing by secondary intention).
There has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of allergies in the UK in recent years. This problem is compounded by the fact that the nature of allergic disease has also become increasingly complex. Previously rare and potentially life-threatening disorders such as peanut allergy are increasingly common (Grundy et al, 2002), while growing numbers of patients have disorders affecting several systems.
WHAT IS IT
VOL: 101, ISSUE: 34, PAGE NO: 37Generic and proprietary names
Preoperative-assessment clinics have been introduced in many specialist areas over the last few years. Some are multidisciplinary, others are predominantly medically focused and an increasing number are nurse-led (Sutcliffe and Potter, 2000). They have evolved from the need to deliver quality health care within an environment where there are limited resources, such as theatre time and hospital beds.
According to the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, institutions have a responsibility for pain management and patients should have access to the best level of pain relief that may safely be provided (McCaffery and Pasero, 1999).
The increasing incidence of childhood obesity raised concern in 1990, when an estimated 18 million children under the age of five worldwide were classified as being overweight (WHO, 1998). Interestingly despite this warning the incidence continues to increase.
The Department of Health’s document Valuing People (DoH, 2001a) insists that secondary health services should be accessible to people with learning disabilities. There must be no discrimination against people with learning disabilities and support must be provided to help patients to understand and cooperate with their treatment while in hospital.
WHAT IS IT?
VOL: 98, ISSUE: 48, PAGE NO: 28AETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
VOL: 101, ISSUE: 38, PAGE NO: 35
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has been defined as the complaint of involuntary leakage of urine on effort, exertion, sneezing or coughing (Abrams et al, 2002). It becomes known as urodynamically proven stress incontinence (USI) when filling cystometry (a test of bladder function) shows a rise in intra-abdominal pressure, without a detrusor muscle (bladder muscle) contraction, causing urine loss via the urethra.
VOL: 100, ISSUE: 02, PAGE NO: 38 William Anderson, RGN, is clinical nurse, specialist care of older people/lead nurse for free nursing care, Canterbury & Coastal Primary Care Trust Hilary Bungay, PhD, MA, HDCR, is Senectus programme manager, Centre for Health Service Studies, University of Kent
A study soon to be published in the journal Respiratory Medicine claims that deaths caused by pneumonia have risen since the Department of Health told prescribers in 1998 not to give antibiotics for coughs, colds and sore throats (NT News, 6 January, p9).
Bowel management - particularly digital rectal examination (DRE) and the manual removal of faeces - has been a contentious issue for some time. In the past few years this has been brought to the fore by a number of cases of professional misconduct by nurses.
In primary and community health care settings, long-term (>28 days) urinary catheterisation (LTC) is most commonly used in managing older people and those with neurological conditions. Studies suggest that in the UK LTC is used in 0.5 per cent of people aged 75 or over (Kohler-Ockmore and Feneley, 1996) and in four per cent of people receiving domiciliary care (Getliffe and Mulhall, 1991).
Toilets and continence play critical roles in the lives of people who care for a relative at home. Issues around toileting are central to the relationship between the carer and the person being cared for, with the bathroom often becoming the most important place in the house.
WHAT IS IT?
The emphasis on lifelong learning is clearly evident in government policy from 1997, with most progressive organisations encouraging the implementation of lifelong leaning approaches as an integral part of staff development (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2002).
Yellow fever vaccineSubscription
VOL: 102, ISSUE: 09, PAGE NO: 29GENERIC AND PROPRIETARY NAMES
Warts and VerrucasSubscription
WHAT ARE WARTS AND VERRUCAS?
VOL: 100, ISSUE: 01, PAGE NO: 40 Sue Watkinson, PhD, MSc, PGCEA, BA, RN, is senior lecturer, research studies, Thames Valley University, London Eileen Scott, BSc, RN, RM, Higher Award in Nursing, DipN, is sister, Central Eye Service, Central Middlesex Hospital, North West London Hospitals Trust Ophthalmic and general nurse practitioners are currently addressing the changing role of nursing practice.
The fact that smoking is harmful to health is well known by both health professionals and the general public:
In any environment occupied by humans, microbes will be present in varying numbers (Collins, 1988). They enter the environment through a variety of routes, for instance, in body fluids, faeces, the respiratory route, and skin scales that have been shed. Dust is a hazard because it is largely made up of skin scales, and they are constantly being shed into the environment.
WHAT ARE THEY?
VOL: 101, ISSUE: 48, PAGE NO: 33Generic and proprietary names
West Nile virusSubscription
VOL: 101, ISSUE: 26, PAGE NO: 28What is it?
Sinead Jones, PhD, MPHDirector, BMA Tobacco Control Resource Centre, EdinburghSecond-hand tobacco smoke is the main source of indoor air pollution in the UK. This chemical cocktail contains more than 50 ingredients which cause cancer. Yet, even though for two decades scientific evidence has demonstrated that exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful, children are still exposed every day.
People always remember being given bad news, no matter how well it is delivered. Health-care professionals have a responsibility to minimise the trauma of this experience by being well prepared (Radziewicz and Baile, 2001).
Joan Livesley, BSc, MA, RSCN.Lecturer, University of SalfordStory-telling is an important tool for nurses seeking to explore and discover the meanings of their own personal and professional experience and the experiences of those with whom they work.
Returning home after surgerySubscription
Jill Riley, MSc, BA (Hons), RN, RM.
Rachel Matthews, MSc, RGN. Lead Patient Care Adviser for Extending Choice in Heart Surgery, Cardiac and Renal Services, Barts and the London NHS Trust
Heather Daly, Nurse Consultant - Diabetes.University Hospitals of Leicester NHS TrustDiabetes could cost you your kidneys: act now! was the slogan for this year's World Diabetes Day. Nurses around the world have been taking part in a campaign to raise awareness about the importance of microalbuminuria screening.
Joanna C. Trim, BSc, RN. Clinical Skills Trainer, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Trust
Contraceptive choices that workSubscription
Freda Barber, BSc (Hons), RN, RM.
Karen Lay-Flurrie, RN, Staff Nurse. Windsor Wing Day Hospital, Hemel Hempstead General Hospital, Hertfordshire, and student on the BSc (Hons) programme at the University of Hertfordshire This paper examines the composition and properties of amorphous hydrogels.
Mayrine Fraser, BSc, RGN.Osteoporosis Nurse SpecialistOsteoporosis is characterised by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. The disease presents clinically as fractures that occur at any site in the skeleton and typically occur with minimal trauma (World Health Organization, 1994).
Michele Paterson, RGN, ONC.Spinal Nurse Specialist, Queen Elizabeth Spinal Injuries Unit, GlasgowAdvances in knowledge around spinal cord injuries and the technology available to patients and professionals mean specialist units must constantly evolve to respond to patients' needs.
Malcolm Elliott, BN, MN, RN. Lecturer, Department of Nursing, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia A critical incident is one which causes a person to pause and contemplate the events that have occurred to try to give them some meaning.