Babies born with a low birthweight are at an increased risk of death in infancy right through to adolescence, compared to babies born at a normal birthweight, according to UK researchers.
A team from Cardiff University, led by Professor Sailesh Kotecha, examined official death rates in low birthweight babies among over 12 million births in England and Wales between 1993 and 2011.
“The study reaffirms the need to tackle important factors, such as maternal smoking and deprivation”
The research found there were 0.61% deaths between birth and 18 years of age, with 77% occurring in the first year of life and 23% occurring between one and 18 years of age.
Death rates were higher in babies with low birthweight at both age groups, with death occurring 130 times more frequently in those born at a very low birthweight – under 2,500g – than normal birth weight in infancy.
Events occurring around birth and premature births were important causes of deaths in infancy, said the researchers in the journal PLOS Medicine.
Causes for deaths in those aged one and 18 years of age were more evenly distributed across causes, with conditions of the nervous system and respiratory system being leading causes of death in the lowest birthweight group but cancers and external conditions being the primary causes of death in low birthweight groups.
Professor Kotecha said: “We know low birthweight is associated with increased mortality rates in infancy; however, its association with mortality in later childhood and adolescence is less clear cut.
Low birthweight linked to higher mortality up to adolescence
“This study is significant as it shows, for the first time, that low birthweight is associated with increased death rates from infancy right through to adolescence,” he said.
The study was observational, however the authors said they believed it reinforced the need to target factors known to contribute to low birthweights to help cut deaths.
Professor Kotecha added: “The study reaffirms the need to tackle important factors, such as maternal smoking and deprivation, which are well known to contribute to low birth weight.
“By better understanding and ameliorating influences that lead to low birthweight, deaths in infancy and beyond could be cut,” he said.