The House of Lords Intergovernmental Organisations Committee called for better response systems to detect and deal with outbreaks before they spread into epidemics.
New illnesses are only identified after they have jumped the species barrier to infect humans, the report, called Diseases Know No Frontiers, warned.
Too many organisations operate alongside each other and duplicate work, placing burdens on the developing countries where many of the diseases emerge.
The committee said the World Health Organisation must spearhead the improvement of the surveillance and response effort – but added that it must have more funding to do this.
Committee chairman Lord Soley said: ‘It is vital that there is sufficient surveillance of disease outbreaks to limit their spread.
‘We were particularly concerned about the link with animal health.
'Three quarters of new human infectious diseases start in animals. We urgently need better surveillance systems to deal with this problem.’