The risk of post natal depression is increased if the mother experiences pregnancy complications or difficult labour, according to Dutch experts.
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Suffering one complication increases the risk of the condition, but the chances are even higher if more than one thing goes wrong.
The researchers analysed data for almost 5,000 pregnant women for the study, published in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
They found that women admitted to hospital during their pregnancy had more than twice the risk of post natal depression as those who stayed out of hospital until delivery time.
Meanwhile, women who experienced pre-eclampsia (linked to high blood pressure) were also more than twice as likely to suffer.
Having an emergency Caesarean section increased the risk 1.5 times, similar to the risk if a baby was admitted to hospital after birth or if there were concerns during labour that the baby was in distress.
One complication meant women were more than twice as likely to get post natal depression overall, rising to more than five times for women who had four or five complications.
All the women were assessed on how they were feeling two months after delivery using a common scoring method.
The scoring ranged from 0, meaning no depression, to 30, meaning very depressed.
Of the total sample, 396 (8%) women experienced post natal depression and tended to be younger and from lower background levels of education than those who did not suffer.
Around one in 10 of all pregnant women are known to get the condition, which mostly occurs in the first three months after delivery.
It can range from mild symptoms - sometimes called the baby blues - to clinically diagnosed post natal depression.
Women who are not diagnosed early enough can end up suffering for many months or even years.