Nurse, midwives and doctors have for the first time been issued joint guidance on their professional duty to be open with patients and to apologise when something has gone wrong.
The professional “duty of candour” guidance should also send out a “clear message” to employers and clinical leaders about their responsibility to support transparency, according to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and General Medical Council, which launched the guideline today.
The joint guidance requires registrants to explain what has happened and apologise when a patient has already suffered, or may be harmed in the future, due to a mistake.
Professional judgement must be used to decide whether to inform patients of so-called “near misses” – an adverse incident that had the potential to result in harm but did not.
However, apologising does not mean a registrant is taking personal responsibility for an error that was not their fault, states the guidance – called Openness and honesty when things go wrong: the professional duty of candour.
“But the patient has the right to receive an apology from the most appropriate team member, regardless of who or what may be responsible,” it says.
Following consultation of draft guidance last year, an extra section has been included in the final version clarifying that saying sorry does also not mean the healthcare professional is admitting legal liability for what has happened.
“In addition, a fitness to practise panel may view an apology as evidence of insight,” adds the guidance.
Registrants are told in the guidance they should be supported by employers to report adverse incidents and near misses routinely and should raise a concern if this is not the case.
They should also not prevent colleagues or former colleagues from raising concerns about patient safety.
“If you are in a management role, you must make sure that individuals who raise concerns are protected from unfair criticism or action, including any detriment or dismissal,” adds the guideline.
“None of this will work without an open and honest learning culture, in which staff feel empowered to admit mistakes”
Niall Dickson, chief executive of the GMC, said the regulators wanted to send out a “clear message” to organisations about their responsibility to individual employees.
“None of this will work without an open and honest learning culture, in which staff feel empowered to admit mistakes and raise concerns,” he said.
He said it remained “one of the biggest challenges” facing the healthcare system and a “major impediment to safe, effective care” that an open culture did not exist across the board.
NMC chief executive Jackie Smith said: “We can’t stop mistakes from happening entirely and we recognise that sometimes things go wrong. The test is how individuals and organisations respond to those instances, and the culture they build as a result.”
The new guidance builds on previous requirements for nurses and doctors to be honest with patients.
It follows a recommendation made by Sir Robert Francis following his inquiry into care failings at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust that there should be a legal “duty of candour” on both organisations and individual clinicians.
However, in its response, the government only introduced a legal duty on organisations, not for individuals. It instead asked professional regulators to strengthen their guidance for individuals.