Smokers are four times more likely to develop age-related macular degeneration than those who have never smoked, research has shown.
Past smokers were three times more likely to have geography atrophy, an advanced form of the disease, than those who had never smoked.
The Australian research was conducted on 2,454 people aged 49 and older over a ten year period.
Participants had retinal photos taken at five and ten year follow up exams and they were asked about their smoking habits.
They were also quizzed about diet and their BMI and blood pressures were measured.
Archives of Ophthalmology (2007) 125: 1089-1095