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Typhoid vaccine.

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VOL: 101, ISSUE: 34, PAGE NO: 37

Generic and proprietary names

Generic and proprietary names
- Polysaccharide typhoid vaccine.

- Typherix.

- Typhim Vi.

- Typhoid vaccine (oral).

- Vivotif.

- Combined typhoid and hepatitis A vaccines are also available.

Classification
- Immunological products and vaccines.

- Vaccines and antisera.

Indications
- Travellers from non-endemic to disease-endemic regions although it is not a substitute for careful personal hygiene.

- Laboratory workers handling samples from suspect cases.

Contraindications
Oral

- Known sensitivity or allergy to any ingredient.

- Decreased immune response due to diseases such as leukaemia, lymphoma or an HIV infection.

- Persistent vomiting or diarrhoea.

- Acute feverish illness.

- Gastrointestinal conditions.

Injection
- Known sensitivity or allergy to any ingredient.

- Acute feverish illness.

Cautions
- Pregnancy - typhoid vaccine should only be given if a clear indication exists.

- Not usually recommended for children under one year of age. Oral vaccine is not suitable for children under six years of age.

Side-effects
Oral

- Abdominal cramps.

- Diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting.

- Urticaria.

Injection

- Fever.

- Headache.

- Erythema or induration of more than 1cm at injection site.

Interactions
Oral

- Antibiotics, mefloquine or sulphonamides may inactivate the vaccine.

Administration
Oral

- The enteric-coated capsules should be swallowed whole, about one hour before a meal, with a cold or lukewarm drink.

- Three doses are taking on alternate days (day one, three and five).

Injection
- Can be given simultaneously with other vaccines relevant for international travellers.

Nursing considerations
- Antibiotics should be avoided during the three days before and after oral administration.

- Travellers from non-endemic to disease-endemic regions are recommended a booster on a yearly basis for oral and every three years for injections.

- Recommended storage temperature is between 2 degsC and 8 degsC.

- Consult a recognised source of information when recommending vaccinations to travellers.

- It is usually considered good practice to provide patients with a record of the immunisations they have been given and dates for boosters.

Patient teaching
- Inform patients that they may need to return for booster doses if they continue to travel to risk areas.

- Ensure that patients are aware of food and water hygiene precautions.

- The vaccine confers protection seven days after an injection and seven to ten days after an oral course.

Nurses should refer to manufacturer's summary of product characteristics and to appropriate local guidelines

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